While audiovisual and print media are under the control of the state, the emergence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has reconfigured the production and consumption of old and new forms of media in the public sphere. Given the authoritarian nature of most government in Berber country, the use of modern and mobile technology has radically transformed the media landscape in three critical ways. First, it provided Berber activists with alternative and effective ways to debate all things Berber and to short-circuit government censorship bureaus, which had for so long muffled Berber initiatives. Second, the arrival of ICTs complemented very nicely the blooming Berber sociopolitical and cultural awakening. Third, ICTs provide tools of communication that defy the constraints of geography and time. This latter dimension has been more critical in the sense that it allowed Berbers to build imagined and virtual communities and break away from government control of traditional forms of media, such as newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and film.
   Print, audio, and digital media encompass a wide range of independent and start-up publications that speak to Berber issues and aspirations. Many Amazigh publications can be found in Berber country newsstands and bookstores. Some are published locally, while others are imported from abroad, especially France, Spain, Belgium, and Holland. In Morocco, there are several newspapers and magazines, most of which are trilingual (Berber, Arabic, and French or Spanish), and focus on Berber culture, language, and history. These are Amud, Tasafut, Tamagit, Tiwiza, Agraw, Tamunt, Tidmi, Adrar, Tilelli, Tifawt, Tifinagh, Libika, Tawiza, Agraw, Amazigh magazine, Le Monde Amazigh, and the first weekly, Amazigh magazine, and Tamazight. In Algeria, there are the monthly sociocultural magazine Izuran and La Dépêche de Kabylie. In France, given its colonial history in Berber country, all forms of media are developed to their fullest thanks to the endeavors of Berber migrant communities energized by the second-generation interest in Berber and global questions. Some on- and offline publications in France and the Canary Islands include Parimazigh, Awal, Imazighen ass-a, Issalan n Temoust, La Lettre d'Enfants de l'Adrar des Iforas, Notes de linguistique Berbère, and Diario de canarias.
   Internet sites have also boomed over the past two decades. These sites include,,,,,, membres.lycos. fr/temoust/,,,,, and National and transnational radio and television stations include Berber Radio and Television (BRTV) and Radio Amazigh BRTV (France), Radio Chaine 2 (Algeria), Radio Erif (Morocco), and Amazigh Montreal Radio (Canada), some of which are available online.

Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen) . . 2014.

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